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About Mangalore

Mangalore

 

 

 

 

 

Corporation City
Town Hall of Mangalore
Town Hall of Mangalore
Nickname(s): Cradle of Indian Banking [1]
Gateway of Karnataka [2]
Mangalore is located in Karnataka


 

 

 

 

 

History

 

 

The area that is now Mangalore has been mentioned in many ancient works of Hindu history. The name of this town appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India. In the epic Ramayana, Lord Rama ruled over the region, while in the epic Mahabharata, Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandavas, governed the area. Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata, also visited the area when he travelled from Gokarna to Adoor, a village nearKasargod. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, referred to the port of Mangalore as Mangarouth.Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, while Greek historian Ptolemy referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Ptolemy also referred to the city as Maganoor in some of his works.

In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The region was known as Sathia (Shantika) during the Mauryan regime. From second century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty ruled over the region. From 567 to 1325, the town was ruled by the native Alupa rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas. Mangalapura (Mangalore) was the capital of the Alupa dynasty until the 14th century. The city, then an important trading zone for Persian merchants, was visited by Adenese merchant Abraham Ben Yiju. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarun, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary. By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control. Later, the Jain Kings ruled the town as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire, and brought the town firmly under an efficient and centralised administration.In 1448, Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, and was amazed at a glorious temple he saw in the city, en route to Vijayanagara.

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity. Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat, Bombay, Goa and Malabar. Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwood were exported to Bombay. Turmeric was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon, Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Choir and Timber.

 

 

 

A fort with two-tiered ramparts and many bastions rises above the far bank of a river. Some human settlements are visible nearby.
 
A pen and ink drawing of Mangalore Fort made in 1783, after it had been taken by theEnglish East India Company

European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at St Mary's Island near Mangalore. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio succeeded in defeating the Bangara King and his allies and conquered Mangalore. The trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands. In the mid-16th century, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, and Goan Catholics from Goa migrated to Mangalore as a result of Goa Inquisition. In 1640, the Keladi Nayakakingdom defeated the Portuguese and ruled the town until 1762. The Portuguese were allowed to have trade relations with Mangalore. In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.

Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763, consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783, but was subsequently wrested from their control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan; who renamed it Jalalabad. The Second Anglo–Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the Canara district under the Madras Presidency.

 

 

 

 
The Light House Hill tower in Light House Hill, Hampankatta, served as a watchtower for the British Navy.

The city was largely peaceful during British rule, with urban and infrastructural developments affected during the period. Mangalore flourished in education and in industry, becoming a commercial centre for trade. The opening of the Lutheran German Basel Mission in 1834 brought many cotton weaving and tile manufacturers to the city. When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was bifurcated into North Canaraand South Canara in 1860, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters. South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1861. The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities.Roman Catholic missions to Mangalore like the Italian Jesuit "Mangalore Mission" of 1878 played an important role in education, health, and social welfare. The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.

As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka). Mangalore is a major city of Karnataka, providing the state with access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port on 4 May 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited on 15 March 1976. The late 20th century saw Mangalore develop as a business, commercial and information technology (IT) centre, although the traditional red tile-roofed houses are still retained in the city.

 

 

 

Economy

 

 

Mangalore's economy is dominated by the agricultural processing and port-related activities. The New Mangalore Port is India's ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of INR33.47 crore (US$5.25 million) to the state The city's major enterprises include Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd.(MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), BASF, Bharati Shipyard Limited and Total Oil India Limited (ELF Gas).

 

 

 

The Infosys campus in Mangalore

 
Forum Fiza Mall at Pandeshwar

 
City Centre Mall at K.S.Rao Road

The leaf spring industry has an important presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city.The Baikampady and Yeyyadi Industrial areas harbour several small-scale industries. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oiledible oilLPG, and timber.The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys, Cognizant Technology Solutions,MphasiS BPO, Thomson Reuters have established a presence in Mangalore.[10] Plans to create three dedicated I.T. parks are underway, with two parks (Export Promotion Industrial park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University) currently under construction.[90] A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. Another IT SEZ, sponsored by the BA group, is under construction at Thumbeand spans 2 million square feet (180,000 m²).

 

 

 


 
The Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited is a major industry in Mangalore that was commissioned in 1976.

The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over INR35000 crore (US$5.50 billion) in a new 15 million tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone. Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, is developing strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India. Out of the proposed 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT would be at Mangalore. According to an International edition of India Today (28 November – 4 December 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non-metro in South India.

Corporation Bank, Canara Bank,and Vijaya Bankwere the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Karnataka Bank, founded in Mangalore, was one of the largest banks to have not been taken over by the Government.The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd. and SCDCC Bank were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore.

The boat building and fishing industry have been core businesses in Mangalore for generations. The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04. The fishing industry employs thousands of people, their products being exported to around the region. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red roof tile manufacturing factories. Cotton industries also flourish in Mangalore. The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coir yarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city. The process of making Mangalore City Corporation into ‘Greater Mangalore’ has almost begun and steps are being initiated to embrace 33 villages around the MCC. In this regard, the meeting of the Gram Panchayat, Town Municipal council and Gram Panchayat Presidents and Secretaries has been convened.

 

 

 

 

Culture

 

 

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore, while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara. Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat(traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings). The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year. The Shreemanti Bai Memorial Government Museum in Bejai is the only museum of Mangalore.

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being DasaraDiwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid, and Ganesh ChaturthiKodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple. The Mangalorean Catholics community's unique festivals include Monti Fest(Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests. The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jainfamilies of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually, while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtamifestival, is celebrated by the whole community. Aati, a festival worshiping Kalanja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadhamonth of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlostava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music. Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night. Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes. An ancient ritual associated with the 'daivasthanams' (temples) in rural areas, Hindu kori katta, a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples and also allowed if organised as part of religious or cultural events.

 

 

 

 
Neer dosa, a variant of dosa, andpundi (rice ball), are native to Mangalore.

Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is a popular dish in Kanara. The Tuluva community's well-known dishes include Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli UpkariNeer dosa (lacy rice-crêpes), Boothai GasiKadubu, and Patrode. The Konkani community's specialities includeDaali thoybeebe-upkari (cashew based), val valavnas ambe sasamKadgi chakkopaagila podi, and chana gashi. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, fish forms the staple diet of most people. Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sannaidli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas—Pork), Pork Bafat,Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani of the Muslims are well-known dishes. Pickles such as happalasandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore.Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangalore


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