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About Gwalior

Gwalior

 

 

 

 

Metropolitan City
clockwise from left:Gwalior Fort, Jai Vilas Palace, High Court and Sun Temple
clockwise from left:Gwalior Fort, Jai Vilas Palace, High Court and Sun Temple


 

 

 

History

 

After being founded by Maharaj Suraj Sen, Gwalior Fort saw many many different rulers capturing it and ruling the city around it.Gwalior became a prominent place for religious practices, cultures and other disciplines coming up during that time in the country. .During 6th century BC Gwalior was ruled by the Naad dynasty of Pataliputra. During the first century AD Gwalior came under Naag Dynasty. From the carving found at Pavaya it has been discovered that the kushanas ruled the city till the 3rd century AD. After that it came under the Guptas till 467 AD. During the 5th century, The Kannauj of Pratihara Dynasty ruled Gwalior and played a prominent role in shaping its history. From 700–740 AD Gwalior (fondly called then as Gopal Giri) became the capital of Kannauj. A Magnificent Sun Temple was created at the fort hill during that period which later was destroyed.

 


 
The Maharahaj of Gwalior Before His Palace c. 1887

 
Jain statues at Gwalior build by dungar singh

 
The Maan Mandir Palace at Gwalior Fort

Later Kachwaha became the rulers of Gwalior. The Padavali Group of Monuments near Morena, Sahastrabahu Temple at the Fort, Kankadmad, were built under their rule.

During 1195–96 Mahhamed Gauri invaded Gwalior and created a mass destruction with attempts to capture Gwalior. But he failed as the fort of Gwalior was unconquerable under the brave efforts of Parihars. In 1231 Itutmish captured Gwalior after an 11-month-long effort and from then till the 13th century it remained under Muslim Rule. In 1375, Raja Veer Singh was made the ruler of Gwalior and he founded the rule of the tomars in Gwalior. During those years, Gwalior saw its golden period.

The Jain Sculptures at Gwalior Fort were built during Tomar's rule Raja Man Singh made his dream palace the Maan Mandir Palace which is now the centre of attraction of Gwalior Fort. Babur described this Palace as a pearl in the necklace of forts in India and said that not even the winds could touch its masts.The daily Light and Sound Show tells about the beautiful history of the Gwalior Fort and Man Mandir Palace. Later during the 1730s the Scindia Captured Gwalior and it remain a princely state during the British Rule.

Ganesh temple at Gwalior Fort has the very first occurrence of zero as a written number in the world.By the 15th century, the city had a noted singing school which was attended by Tansen. Gwalior was ruled by the Mughals and then the Marathas.

 

 

 

 

Art and culture


Gwalior is a well acknowledged place of art, associated with historic as well as contemporary evidence. In August 2005 a mural created by Aasutosh Panigrahi and five other artists was acknowledged as the World's Largest Indoor Mural by Guinness World Records.

Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the conference on Marathi Literature were held once in Gwalior City. It was presided by President of the Conference writer Kusumavati Deshpande (and wife ofKavi Anil) in 1961. She was the first female president of the annual Sammelan since its inception in 1878.

Culturally Gwalior is the confluence of two rich cultures Bundeli and Braj. Bundelkhand covers Gwalior, Bhind, Morena, Sagar, Shivpuri, Guna, Sheopur and adjoining areas.

 

 

 

 

 

Main festivals

All national festivals, Holi, Diwali, Mahashivratri, Shri Krishna Janmashtami, Ramnavami, Makara Sankranti, Eid-ul-Fitr, Christmas, Rakshabandhan, Mahavir jayanti, Hanuman jayanti, Buddha Poornima,Guru Nanak Jayanti, Sant Ravidas and Ghasiram Jayanti and other local ones such as Nag-Panchmi, Shreenath Mahadji Maharaj Punyatithi, Gangaur, Teej, Gudi Padwa (Marathi New Year), Navratri, Durga Puja are celebrated with equal enthusiasm. Last decade has seen a rise in the celebration of events.

Gwalior also celebrates Rang Panchami quite differently. This festival is celebrated five days after Dulendi or Holi. This is also celebrated like Dulendi, but colours are mixed with water and then either sprinkled or poured on others.

 

 

 

 

 

Economy of Gwalior


Gwalior Fair

Gwalior enjoys being at a very strategic position as being a main junction on New Delhi – Chennai railroad and being on NH-3 and NH-75. Gwalior is surrounded by 3 Industrial areas – Sitholi, Banmore and Malanpur. All three of these sectors are on NH 75, NH-3 and NH 92 respectively, with Malanpur being the largest. The city used to have big manufacturing industries, such as Gwalior Grasim and J.C. MILLS of Birlanagar, but now this sector is left with only one industry – J.B.Mangharam Ltd. But the other 3 sectors have many industries. The important are from dairy, chemical, manufacturing, textiles, and other industries. Handicraft and small industries are also found like Gwalior potteries. Gwalior is also an important historical and tourism sector of the country. Therefore, the tourism sector also puts an effect into the city's economy. Gwalior is part of NCR. The Gwalior Trade Fair is an annual trade fair showcasing the economy of Gwalior. There are some manufacturing set-ups of some companies like UFlex (Flex Industries Ltd), SRF, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Cadbury, J. K. Tyres, Surya Bulbs, SiyaRam and Railway spring factory Sitholi.' Most of the Local population is involved with trading firms or are self-employed. Many run OMEs and SMEs with Gwalior and Agra as the local market. The city is scattered with coaching institutes and Educational institutions which provide employment to a large section of city's population.

 

 

 

 

Gwalior Metro and suburbs

 

The old town

view of Gwalior Fort from the Old city

The old town of Gwalior, commonly called is kila gate and then about 1 km away is hazira largest area in old town, which is of considerable size but irregularly built, lies at the eastern base of the rock. It contains the tomb of the Sufi saints, Khwaja Khanoon and Muhammad Ghaus, erected during the early part of Mughal emperor Akbar’s reign, and the tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of Akbar's court. A town called by his name Ghauspura situated near the tomb of Mohaommed Ghaus.reold town consisted of some streets and mohallas which are presumed to be 700 to 800 yrs old areas in gwalior which are still backward areas in gwalior due to improper management of new town. these old areas are as follows. 1)koteshwar temple- this temple is 700 yrs old temple of lord shiva whose shivling was on gwalior fort but when mughals conquered the fort they ordered to threw out the shivaling fort when his troophs done that,shivaling was automatically established in a field below fort without any harm then Muslim qazi told emperor not to do harm to shivaling then in late 18th century scindians build a temple for that shivaling now popularly known as koteshwar mahadev. 2)Ghas mandi- this area is presumed to be 700 years old it was established around the 15th century this place was used by local population for business by selling grass for feeding animals for king and other rich persons. 3)Baba Kapoor- this place is 500 meters away from ghas mandi actually this place was given name baba kapoor because of a famous saint shah abdul gafoor his mazar is there in this area that's why this place is called as baba kapoor and this area consist of 90% Muslims in whole gwalior. 4)kashi naresh ki gali- this a 600 yrs old residential street in gwalior it was given name as kashi naresh ki gali because in the 14th century when the emperor of kashi was defeated in war he was sent to exile by oppositions at that time gwalior emperor and kashi's emperor were good friends when kashi's emperor told gwalior's emperor whole story, emperor gave him an entire street for living at that time which is now known as kashi naresh ki gali. their family is even now resides there in kashi naresh ki gali in RAJAJI KA BADA. meanings- naresh =king = rajaji. gali =street in Hindi language. bada= big area. 5)Loha Mandi- this place is also 600yrs old in gwalior. this place was used for buying iron materials. 6)Hazira- it was the main market place of gwalior that time nowadays this place is too much congested because of its irregular and unplanned structure which was made by old merchants in the 15th century.

all these areas are very considered to be very important areas in historical point of view even now many times many historical coins, jwellery, arms etc. founded in houses when a person try to reniewate the house and these areas also many unpredictable secrets. The town has a museum situated in the Gujari Mahal.


 

 

Tourism

 

Gwalior Fort

 

At the heart of Gwalior is Gwalior Fort of the Tomar dynasty. This formidable structure was reputed to be one of the most structurally sound forts ofIndia, having been improved by Raja Man Singh Tomar where a previous structure existed. It occupies an isolated rock outcrop. The hill is steepened to make it virtually unscalable and is surrounded by high walls which enclose buildings from several periods. The old town of Gwalior lies at the eastern base of the fortress. Lashkar, formerly a separate town that originated as a military camp, lies to the south, and Morar, also a formerly separate town, lies to the east. Gwalior, Lashkar and Morar are part of the Gwalior Municipal Corporation.

The massive Gwalior Fort, popularly called "the Gibraltar of India", overlooks the city. The Emperor Babur reputedly described it as "the pearl in the necklace of the forts of Hind". This fort's architecture is unique. It displays a Chinese influence on Indian architecture, as Chinese dragons have been crafted at the hilt of the pillars. This influence was due to trade between China and India at the time of the fort's construction.



 

 

Panoramic view of Gujri Mahal & near by areas from Gwalior Fort

 

 

 

 

After the death of Sher Shah Suri in 1545, who was ruling North India at that time, his son Islam Shah shifted his capital from Delhi to Gwalior and constructed 'Sher Shah Mandir' (or 'Sher Shah Fort') in his father's memory. Islam Shah operated from Gwalior until his death in 1553. Islam Shah had appointed the Hindu warrior 'Hemu' or Hem Chandra Vikramaditya as his Prime Minister in Sher Shah Fort for the first time, who later on became the Hem Chandra Vikramaditya king at Delhi and established 'Hindu Raj' in North India, by virtue of winning 22 battles continuously from Punjab to Bengal and defeating Akbar's army in Agra and Delhi on 6 October 1556.

In the east of the city are two examples of early Mughal architecture: the mausoleum of the 16th century Sufi Saint Ghous Mohammed and the tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of the Mughal Emperor Akbar's court. Right next to them is the Gujari Mahal, built by tomar rajput King Man Singh Tomar on demand of his consort Gujar princess "Mrignayani" (meaning "having eyes like deer") The Mughal Emperor Akbar is also known to have organised hunting parties near Gwalior. Close to the heart of the city is Jai Vilas Palace, patterned on the palace of Versailles. It combines Tuscan, Italian and Corinthian styles of architecture. Historically and architecturally, Gwalior is interesting first as an ancient seat of Jain worship; second for its example of palace architecture of the Hindu period between 1486 and 1516; and third as an historic fortress. Many historical places are found near theDabra-Bhitarwar Road. Prior to the founding of Gwalior, the region was also known by its ancient name of Gopasetra. The great Apabhramsha poet Pandit Raighu lived in Gwalior. Gwalior had an institutional seat of the Bhattarakas of Kashtha Sangh and later Mula Sangh.

 


 
View from the summit of the Gwalior Fort showing the palace of theMaharajah of Scindia, circa 1882.

According to history, the original fort of Gwalior was founded by the Bargujar Kings during the 34th/35th century of Kali yuga as per puranas available with them. His palace is the most interesting example of early Hindu work of its class in India. Another palace of even greater extent was added to this in 1516. The Mughal emperors, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, added palaces to these two, the whole making a group of edifices unequaled for picturesqueness and interest by anything of their class in central India. Among the apartments in the palace was the celebrated chamber, named the Baradari, supported on 12 columns, and 45 ft (15 m) square, with a stone roof, forming one of the most beautiful palace-halls in the world. It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to which the Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the vaults of the Muslims. Of the buildings, however, which so excited the admiration of the first Mughal emperor Babur, probably little now remains.

 

 

 

 

 
The town hall situated at Maharaj Bada

 

 
Gaus Mohammad tomb

The temple bears a close resemblance to the temple of Prathihara Vishnu, and is filled with images of coiled serpents, passionate couples, river goddesses, and a flying Garuda. The temple architecture follows the Indo-Aryan and Nagara styles that exhibit superior artistic calibre. A marvelous temple, believed to be among the oldest constructions in the fort, gives an enchanting experience to the visitor.

The Telikā Mandir, or 'oil-man's temple', owes its name to Teli, a term for an oil grinder or oil dealer. Many suggestions have been put forward to explain this name historically, but in fact the name is not old, the temple being used for processing oil before the British occupied the fort and used the building, albeit temporarily, as a coffee shop. The Telikā Mandir is the loftiest temple among all the buildings in Gwalior Fort with a height of about 30m. The temple consists of a garba griha, that is, sanctum proper for the deity, and an antarala to enter into the temple. It can be approached by a flight of steps provided on the eastern side. The most striking feature of the temple is the wagon-vaulted roof, a form used over rectangular shrines which normally accommodated a row of Mother Goddesses.[10] The goddesses from the interior vanished centuries ago and have not been traced, even in fragments. The exterior walls of the temple are richly decorated with sculptures, many of which are damaged; the niches, shaped like temples, are empty. The building carries a dedicatory inscription to the goddess in a niche on the southern side, but otherwise does not have any history.[11] The architectural style, discussed by a number of architectural historians, points to a date in the late 8th Century.[12] The building was erected just as the Gurjara Pratihāras were asserting their power over central India. The entrance gateway on the eastern side is a later addition of the British period, made by Major Keith in 1881. It was built as a way of saving various historic pillars and other pieces no longer in their original context.

 
Teli-ka-Mandir

The temple is located in a serene ambience and a well-maintained garden within the temple premises is very attractive. This holy temple draws the locals and tourists alike who gather here to render their prayers. It makes one astounded that a shrine of comparatively modern origin holds such a highest regard, and became one among the most sought after pilgrimage centres in the city.

 
traffic outside Deen Dayal City mall

Ambedkar Park and Gandhi Park are the other prominent parks.

 

 

 

Stadiums

The ground has flood lights and has hosted day-night encounters. It can hold 45,000 people at a time. It was originally a hockey stadium named after great Indian hockey player Roop Singh brother of hockey legend Dhyan Chand.

Arrow The Institute started as an affiliated college of the Vikram University, Ujjain and then came to the folds of Jiwaji University, Gwalior in 1964. The Institute was given the status of National importance, and hence it was renamed as Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education (LNCPE) in1973. In recognition of its unique status and character and to facilitate its further growth, the college was conferred the status of an ’Autonomous College’ of Jiwaji University, Gwalior in 1982.


 

 

 

Gallery


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gwalior


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