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About Bhubaneshwar

Bhubaneswar

 

 

 

 

City
Bhubaneswar Montage
Clockwise from Top: Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves , Rajarani Temple, Dhauli Shanti Stupa,Biju Patnaik International Airport, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Lingaraja Temple
Nickname(s): Temple City of India
Bhubaneswar is located in Odisha


 

 

 

 

History

 

 

The history of Bhubaneswar may be viewed in terms of ancient and modern eras. The ancient city has a history of thousands of years, while the modern city emerged in 1948.

Bhubaneswar's first mention was during the Kalinga War, which took place near Dhauli (now in the south of the city) in the 3rd century BCE. Later Emperor Kharavela established his capital atSisupalgarh, on the outskirts of the modern city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves by Kharavela give a good account of that period, which is estimated as 1st–2nd century BCE. Temples built throughout the ancient and medieval periods chronicle the city's history.

Jain and Buddhist shrines portray the settlements around Bhubaneswar in the first two centuries BCE. One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.

The city was the ancient capital of the Kalinga Empire and the architectural legacy of the period is manifest. Historical sites in the city testify to the importance of the region during the 7th to 11th centuries CE, when the Kalinga kings ruled Odisha and beyond. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple and Bindusagar Tank is the only temple ofVishnu in the city. The temples in Bhubaneswar are regarded as having been built from the 8th to 12th centuries under Shaiva influence.

 


Inscription on rock in Brahmi language
 
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves

On 1 April 1936, Odisha, then known as Orissa, became a separate province in British India with Cuttack as its capital. This date is celebrated as Utkal Divas. Cuttack had been Odisha's capital since the 12th century. With independence in 1947, Odisha became a state. Because of Cuttack's vulnerability to floods and space constraints, the capital was moved to Bhubaneswar, which was formally inaugurated on 13 April 1948. The new capital was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.Though part of the city followed the plan, it has grown rapidly over the last few decades, outstripping the planning process.

 

 

 

Culture


Ram Mandir, Bhubaneswar
Muktesvara deula, covered with erotic ancient carvings, known for its quality of sculptures
Ravindra Mandap, an auditorium in Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples; earning the tag of the Temple City of India. Temples made in the Kalinga architectural style with a pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity and a pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray. Some of the famous temples include, Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani TempleAnanta Vasudeva Temple.The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jain monastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major Edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock and a white Peace Pagoda has been built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir andISKCON.


Bhubaneswar along with Cuttack is the home of the Oriya cinema industry, dubbed "Ollywood", where most of the state's film studios are located. Oriya culture survives in the form of Classical Odissi dance, handicrafts, sand artistry and sculpturing as well as theatre and music. Boundary walls and gardens are increasingly being redone to depict the folk art of the state. Odissi, the oldest of the eight survivingclassical dance forms of India can be traced from archaeological evidence from the temples in Bhubaneswar. Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. Srjan, the Odissi dance academy founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, the legendary Odissi dancer is located here. The Rabindra Mandap in central Bhubaneswar plays host to cultural engagements, theatre and private functions. As a part of the Ekamra Festival, many cultural sub-festivals takes place in January in Bhubaneswar which includes, Kalinga Mahotsav (for traditional martial arts), Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsav (for classical dance forms), Rajarani Music Festival (for classical music) and Mukteswar Dance Festival (for Odishi dance). Residents engage in khattis, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation. Though Oriya women traditionally wear the sari and the shalwar kameez, Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals.

The Odisha State Museum offers archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history. The Tribal Research Institute Museum hosts authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen. Nandankanan Zoological Park, located on the northern outskirt of the city, is India's first zoo to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The State Botanical Garden (Odisha) and Regional Plant Resource Center, popularly known as Ekamra Kanan, a park and botanical garden, has a large collection of exotic and regional fauna. The Ekamra Haat is a hand-loom and handicrafts market. Nicco Park and Ocean World, are amusement parks. Other museums include Pathani Samanta PlanetariumRegional Museum of Natural History, Regional Science Center and State Handicrafts Museum.

 


Festivals

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March or April, the image of Lingaraja (Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Mausima Temple, where the deities remain for four days. Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the temple car that carries the deities, known as Rukuna Rath. Ratha-Yatra, "Temple car Festival" is the most important festival in Odisha and Bhubaneswar alike. The festival commemorates Jagannath, who is said to have been the incarnation of India's revered deities, Vishnu andKrishna. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is an occasion for glamorous celebrations. Other festivals celebrated include ShivaratriDiwali, Ganesh Puja, Nuakhai andSaraswati Puja. Eid and Christmas is also celebrated by the religious minorities in the city.

Adivasi Mela is a fair that displays art, artefacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Odisha is held in January. Toshali National Crafts Mela, held in December showcase handicrafts from all over India, and from foreign countries as well.Other important fairs in the city includes, the Rajdhani Book Fair and Khandagiri Utsav.

 

 


Cuisine

Key elements of the city's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machha jholo, which can be accompanied by desserts such as Rasagola, Rasabali, Chhena Gaja and Chhena Poda. Odisha's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of lobsters and crabs brought in from Chilika Lake. Street foods such as Gupchup (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce), Cuttack-chaatDahi bara-Aloo dum and Bara-ghuguni are sold all over the city. Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhal (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.The Abadha of Lingaraj Temple and Ananta Vasudeva Temple served for devotees is considered a vegetarian culinary delight. Other vegetarian dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula (lightly spiced steamed vegetables). Sweets play a large part in the diet of Bhubaneswarites—especially at their social ceremonies. Bhubaneswar is known for its kora-khhaii which are made up of paddy, jaggery and coconut pieces. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread or dim sum are winter specialties.

 

 


Chhena Gaja, famous sweet of Odisha from Pahala, Bhubaneswar


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