|State of India|
Montage of Andhra Pradesh
Clockwise from top left: Visakhapatnam Portview, Godavari Arch Bridge (Rajahmundry),Prakasam Barrage (Vijayawada), Pulicat Lakeand Barrier Island of SHAR (Sriharikota,Nellore), Tirumala temple (Tirupati), Telugu Tallistatue and Konda Reddy Fort in background (Kurnool).
|Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India,
Egg bowl of Asia
Andhra Pradesh has a very diverse geography which leads to a very diverse economy. As many as 9 of the 13 districts have sea coast along theBay of Bengal, which has created manufacturing and export centric industry. The fertile river plans in the delta regions of major peninsular rivers of Godavari and Krishna are rich with agriculture-based industries and the mineral deposits found in the districts of Rayalaseema, Eastern Gats and neighboring states has led to large-scale ore exports.
The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh was 2359.3 billion (US$37 billion) in 2012–13. The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$8.6 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$8.0 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of 1305.87 billion (US$21 billion). In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.
Economy of the state is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India". Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Agriculture is the main occupation and 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state.
Besides rice, farmers of this state also grow wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane,cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
Livestock is also another profitable business which involves, rearing of cattle in an enclosed area for commercial purposes.
Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. Most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013-14.
Visakhapatnam has emerged as a major industrial center and has major public and private sector establishments producing large scale industrial goods ranging from steel, metals, petroleum, polymers, fertilizers, heavy engineering equipment and also facilitates ship building, ports and fishing. Kakinada has multiple fertilizer refineries and produces large scale of natural gas from the offshore of KG basin. Kakinada also exports seafood and related products and produces agricultural products like rice and corn, edible oils, oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, biofuel etc. Vijayawada is famous for processing of agricultural products, automobile body building, hardware, textile, consumer goods and small scale industries. Andhra Pradesh has one major port at Visakhapatnam and several medium sized ports like Gangavaram, Kakinada & Krishnapatnam; which account to large export of cargo traffic. They are several large power plants and major ones are established at Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Kakinada, Krishnapatnam and Cuddapah.
The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of the city alone is at 14.45 billion (US$230 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati are also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1152.6 million (US$18 million) crore while Tirupati with 693 million (US$11 million) and Kakinada with 615.4 million (US$9.7 million).
Other key sectors include pharma, power, banking & Financial, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather and tourism also constitute in the economy of the state.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.
Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of Oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, Iron Ore, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, Gold Diamonds, graphite, Dolomite, quartz, Tungsten, Steatitic, Feldspar, Silica Sand. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of Barytes and Galaxy granite in the international market.
Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totaling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in close proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.
Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the Krishna Godavari Basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.
There are both thermal and hydel power plants. Natural gas, one of the cheapest source in power generation is in abundance. APGENCO is the power generating organization of Andhra Pradesh. Thermal power plants with total capacity of 5610 MW are situated in the state which includes Dr Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Station (1760 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1050 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (800 MW) are of APGENCO, Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC, and the Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 3693.20 MW. There are also non−conventional power generation plants contributing a small portion to the power generation in the state.
The early dynasties which ruled this region had their influence on the culture of the state. The state is rich in its culture in terms of religious worships, literature, dance, music, arts and architecture, spicy cuisine. Some of the notable cultural aspects include paintings of Bapu, Annamayya's songs, famous Kuchipudi dance of the state, the harvest festival Sankranti and many more fairs as well.
The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupati is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for wood toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys.
The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati with features relics of nearby ancient sites, Visakha Museum inVisakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence,and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large a good collection of artifacts.
Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language.
Nannayya (c. 11th century CE) was the earliest known poet and translator. He wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar, called "Andhra Shabda Chintamani" in Sanskrit. There was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada.
Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed as Adhunika Sahityam (Modern literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana . The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.
Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma (second Nobel prize nominee in literature after Rabindranath Tagore), Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu who wrote the booksSivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnayasuri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana are also notable writers.
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classicaldance form. The various classical dance forms (Śastriya Nrutyam) such as Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances(Janapada Nrutyam) forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu exists in Andhra Pradesh.
Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.
Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P.Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.
Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra. Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made Harikatha a special art form.
Burra katha is a oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Telangana and coastal Andhra Pradesh region. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.
Ugadi is celebrated as the Telugu New Year. People listen to Panchanga recitals by Pundits on the day of Ugadi. This process is called asPanchanga Shravanam which is an important aspect of the festival. Makara Sankranti is also a famous harvest festival which is celebrated across the state. Just like in other parts of the country, many other festivals include – Dasara, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali, Vasantotsavam, Maha Shivaratri, Attla Taddi etc. Muslim festivals include Bakrid, Ramadan and Christians celebrate Christmas and Easter.
Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typical meal includes rice, Pappu(Dal), vegetable curry, Relishes, pickles, chutneys and Curd. A lot of spices are produced in the region and hence the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is considered spiciest of all. Tamarind and Red Chillies are the distinct flavor of local cuisine.
Pickles and chutneys (sauces) are made from chilly, ginger, coconut and other vegetables like tomato, brinjals, Gongura are served with meals.Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the pickles. Roselle leaves (Gongura), termed as Andhra Bhakshyam (or food of Andhra).Rayalaseema region too had its own variety which includes Jonna (Jowar), Ragi roti with ragi sangati, usually served with spinach.
The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of fish curry recipes are famous. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.
Sweets made up of milk are widely eaten. Payasam is one of them made with milk, rice or vermicelli pudding served both warm and cold.Pootharekulu, bobbattlu, mamidi tandra, kaja, ariselu (rice based vada using jaggery) etc., are famous sweets.
Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department, APTDC as the Koh-i-Noor of India.
The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The coastline has many beaches, namelyRamakrishna, Rushikonda, Bheemli, Suryalanka, Krishnapatnam, Vodarevu beach, Uppada beaches etc.The state tourism board APTDCpromotes tourism in the state.
Borra Caves in the Ananthagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations.Belum Caves in Kurnool district are the second largest natural caves of 3.229 km (2.006 mi) in length on the Indian subcontinent.
Valleys and Hills
Araku Valley is the famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district with thick forests, coffee plantations and waterfalls. Horsley Hills is a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district, situated at an elevation of 1.265 km (0.786 mi), has natural flora and fauna. Papi Hills in East Godavari district is famous for its scenic beauty of the location in the river Godavari with.
The state has rich forests, diverse flora & fauna that provides ample scope for promoting ecotourism. The state has many Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attracts many migratory birds.
Apart from these, the state is home to many pilgrim destinations. It has many temples and shrines, mosques, and churches. Some famous temples, mosques, Buddhist shrines and churches of religious importance which are often visited by many tourists include Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple in Visakhapatnam District, Dwaraka Tirumala in West Godavari District, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Srikalahastitemple, Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc., and many more as well.
In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood Film Industry. Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.
In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry, has produced the largest number of films in India exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.